Live Fire Test & Evaluation (LFT&E)

10 U.S. Code 2366: "Major systems and munitions programs: survivability testing and lethality testing required before full-scale production."

Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC provides comprehensive LFT&E Program services for survivability, from concept development all the way through to preparation of final reports. Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC personnel have developed LFT&E Management Plans for new construction and modernization shipbuilding programs, including the DDG 51 Class Flight II/IIA, CG 47 Class Modernization, DDG 1000 (formerly DD(X)), and the DDG 51 Class Flight III.

In the early 1990s, the DDG 51 Class Flight I was the first shipbuilding program to undergo LFT&E and Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC personnel were instrumental in developing the LFT&E Management Plan which set the standard for the programs that followed.

Beyond development of the LFT&E Management Plan and LFT&E Strategy, Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC personnel have provided day-to-day management of all Program activities being conducted by Navy laboratories and contractor personnel. In addition to providing program management support, our personnel have also conducted testing, modeling, analysis, and technical evaluations requiring significant technical expertise in the areas of susceptibility, vulnerability, and recoverability


Susceptibility is the degree to which a weapon system is open to effective attack due to one or more inherent weakness. Susceptibility is a function of operational tactics, countermeasures, probability of enemy fielding a threat, etc. Susceptibility is considered a subset of survivability.

Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC personnel have worked closely with scientists at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and other Naval Surface Warfare Center Divisions to develop hit points, conduct Electronic Warfare (EW) effectiveness studies, develop tactics, and to select shot lines used as an input to the vulnerability analysis. We have experience developing ship signature measurement and hit point model validation test plans and conducting ship and submarine acoustic trials.


Vulnerability is the characteristic of a system that causes it to suffer a definite degradation (loss or reduction of capability to perform its designated mission) because of having been subjected to a certain (defined) level of effects in an unnatural ("man-made") hostile environment. Vulnerability is considered a subset of survivability.

Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC personnel have worked closely with analysts and engineers at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, in Bethesda and Philadelphia to conduct detailed vulnerability assessments. Our personnel have a wide range of experience in ship vulnerability assessments, including:


Recoverability is the ability to take emergency action, following combat damage, to prevent loss of the system, to reduce personnel casualties, or to regain weapon system combat mission capabilities. Recoverability is considered a subset of survivability.

Recoverability is a relatively new area of analysis for ship LFT&E programs. However, Test & Evaluation Solutions, LLC personnel are some of the most experienced in the industry. We were instrumental in defining ship recoverability and developing the first assessment plans and methodologies for the DDG 51 Class LFT&E Program. Our personnel participated in all aspects of the groundbreaking DDG 51 Class Total Ship Survivability Trials (TSST) on DDGs 53, 55, 58, 68, and 79. TSSTs are now a standard component of all Navy Shipbuilding LFT&E Programs. We gained significant experience on the DDG 51 Class Common Diagrams and Automated Common Diagrams projects that has been put to use in developing the Integrated Recoverability Model (IRM).


Survivability is the capability of a system and crew to avoid or withstand a "man-made" hostile environment without suffering an abortive impairment of its ability to accomplish its designated mission. Survivability consists of susceptibility, vulnerability, and recoverability.